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Botswana shines in Good Governance, but deteriorating!

Publishing Date : 30 January, 2018

Ndulamo Anthony Morima
EAGLE WATCH


Botswana has been internationally acclaimed for being one of the best countries in the world in as far as good governance is concerned. This notwithstanding, there are some, especially in the academia, media, civil society and the Opposition who have questioned that.


In this article, we consider whether Botswana is indeed the shining example of good governance that it is acclaimed to be. In making this assessment we rely on the 2017 Ibrahim Index of African Governance (IIAG), with data for the year 2016. This Index scored African countries in Rule of Law; Accountability; Personal Safety; National Security; Participation; Rights; Gender; Public Management; Business Environment; Infrastructure; Rural Sector; Welfare; Education and Health.


First, Rule of Law. This includes judicial independence, judicial process, access to justice, property rights, transfers of power and multilateral sanctions in which Botswana scored 74%; 100%; 97%; 85%; 100% and 100% respectively. Botswana attained positions 6; 1; 2; 2; 1 and 1 in judicial independence, judicial process, access to justice, property rights, transfers of power and multilateral sanctions respectively.


Overall, Botswana scored 92.8%, scooping position 2, but considering the 10 year average of 2007 to 2016 she had an increasing deterioration of -0.24. However, Botswana beat the African average of 53.2 %. Second, Accountability. This includes access to information, online public services, public sector accountability, accountability of public officials, corruption in Government and public officials, diversion of public funds and corruption investigation in which Botswana scored 25%; 38.2%; 90.1%; 76.2%; 100%; 76.2%; 66.6% and 58.1 % respectively.


Botswana attained positions 31; 19; 2; 1; 1; 2; 2; and 5 in access to information, online public services, public sector accountability, accountability of public officials, corruption in Government and public officials, diversion of public funds and corruption investigation respectively. Overall, Botswana scored 66.3%, scooping position 3, but considering the 10 year average of 2007 to 2016 she had an increasing deterioration of -0.86. However, Botswana beat the African average of 35.8 %.


Thirdly, Personal Safety. This includes safety of the person, police services, social unrest, crime, political violence, and human trafficking in which Botswana scored 66.8%; 32.1%; 99.3%; 55.2%; 100%; and 50% respectively. Botswana attained positions 7; 32; 1; 20; 1; and 1 in safety of the person, police services, social unrest, crime, political violence, and human trafficking respectively. Overall, Botswana scored 67.2%, scooping position 2, and considering the 10 year average of 2007 to 2016 she had an increasing improvement of +0.56. Botswana beat the African average of 45.7 %.


Fourth, National Security. This includes Government involvement in armed conflict, domestic armed conflict, violence by non-state actors, cross border tensions, internally displaced people and political refugees in which Botswana scored 100% except for political refugees where she scored 99.7% . Needless to say that Botswana ranked position 1 in all except for political refugees where she ranked position 16.


Overall, Botswana scored 100 %, scooping position 1, experiencing no change with respect to the 10 year average of 2007 to 2016. Obviously, Botswana beat the African average of 76.4 %. Fifth, Participation. This includes political participation, civil society participation, free and fair elections, election monitoring agencies, and legitimacy of the political process in which Botswana scored 77.7%; 91.4%; 76.6%; 70.9% and 100 % respectively.


Botswana attained positions 12; 4; 8; 8 and 1 in political participation, civil society participation, free and fair elections, election monitoring agencies, and legitimacy of the political process respectively. Overall, Botswana scored 83.3%, scooping position 4, and considering the 10 year average of 2007 to 2016 she had an increasing improvement of +0.01. Botswana beat the African average of 49.6 %.


Sixth, Rights. This includes freedom of expression, freedom of association and assembly, civil liberties, human rights conventions, human rights violations and protection against discrimination in which Botswana scored 69%; 70.1%; 85.4%; 38.1%, 50% and an abysmal 0% respectively. Botswana attained positions 19; 10; 2; 49, 7 and 36 in freedom of expression, freedom of association and assembly, civil liberties, human rights conventions, human rights violations and protection against discrimination respectively.


Overall, Botswana scored 52.1%, taking position 20, but considering the 10 year average of 2007 to 2016 she had an increasing deterioration of -0.57. However, Botswana beat the African average of 43.4 %. Seventh, Gender. This includes gender equality, women’s political participation, gender balance in education, women’s labour force participation, workplace gender equality, women in the judiciary, laws on violence against women and women’s political empowerment in which Botswana scored 100%; 21.1%; 79.8%; 80%, 100%, 0%, 58.3% and 82.1% respectively.


Botswana attained positions 1; 51; 22; 15; 1; 44; 12 and 16 in gender equality, women’s political participation, gender balance in education, women’s labour force participation, workplace gender equality, women in the judiciary, laws on violence against women and women’s political empowerment respectively. Overall, Botswana scored 65.2%, taking position 18, but considering the 10 year average of 2007 to 2016 she had an increasing deterioration of -0.56. However, Botswana beat the African average of 55 %.



Eighth, Public Management. This includes Government statistical capacity, civil registration, public administration, diversification, budget management, budget balance, fiscal policy, revenue mobilization and transparency of State-owned Companies in which Botswana scored 33.3%; 87.5%; 100%; 1%, 88.9%, 51.5%, 88.9%, 66.6% and 25 % respectively. Botswana attained positions 45; 5; 1; 48; 1; 13; 1, 6 and 7 in Government statistical capacity, civil registration, public administration, diversification, budget management, budget balance, fiscal policy, revenue mobilization and transparency of State-owned Companies respectively.

 
Overall, Botswana scored 60.3%, taking position 7, but considering the 10 year average of 2007 to 2016 she had an increasing deterioration of -1.27. However, Botswana beat the African average of 44.9 %. Ninth, Business Environment. This includes investment climate, competition, business bureaucracy and red tape, customs procedures, soundness of banks, employment creation and regional integration in which Botswana scored 72.2%; 78.9%; 66.7%; 69.9%, 58.4% and 65.9% respectively. Regional integration was stated as not applicable.


Botswana attained positions 11; 4; 4; 3; 7 and 2 in investment climate, competition, business bureaucracy and red tape, customs procedures, soundness of banks, employment creation and regional integration respectively. Overall, Botswana scored 68.7%, taking position 4, but considering the 10 year average of 2007 to 2016 she had an increasing deterioration of -0.08. However, Botswana beat the African average of 43.5 %.


Tenth, Infrastructure. This includes transport infrastructure, electricity infrastructure, digital and IT infrastructure, transport infrastructure, access to improved water, and water and sanitation services in which Botswana scored 58.1%; 52%; 66.2%; 75.1% and 70.2% respectively. Regional integration was stated as not applicable. Botswana attained positions 6; 11; 7; 14 and 3 in transport infrastructure, electricity infrastructure, digital and IT infrastructure, transport infrastructure, access to improved water, and water and sanitation services respectively.


Overall, Botswana scored 64.3%, taking position 5, but considering the 10 year average of 2007 to 2016 she had a slowing deterioration of -0.08. However, Botswana beat the African average of 63.4 %, albeit marginally. Eleventh, Rural Sector. This includes rural land and water, rural business climate, rural development resources, agricultural support services, agricultural policy costs, engagement with rural organisations, gender balance in rural decision making and rural accountability and transparency in which Botswana scored 64.1%; 55.3%; 87.5%; 37.2%, 63.3%, 64.9%, 75% and 72.6% respectively.


Botswana attained positions 17; 26; 3; 41, 10, 15, 2 and 6 in rural land and water, rural business climate, rural development resources, agricultural support services, agricultural policy costs, engagement with rural organisations, gender balance in rural decision making and rural accountability and transparency respectively. Overall, Botswana scored 65%, taking position 7, but considering the 10 year average of 2007 to 2016 she had warning signs of -0.17. However, Botswana beat the African average of 51.5 %.


Twelfth, Welfare. This includes welfare services, social safety nets, social protection and labour, social exclusion, poverty, poverty reduction priorities, narrowing income gaps, environmental policy and environmental sustainability in which Botswana scored 84%; 92.3%; 77.8%; 57.1%, 52.8%, 88.5%, 86.7%, 85.7% and 66.7% respectively. Botswana attained positions 5; 1; 2; 2, 17, 3, 1 and 23 in welfare services, social safety nets, social protection and labour, social exclusion, poverty, poverty reduction priorities, narrowing income gaps, environmental policy and environmental sustainability respectively.


Overall, Botswana scored 76.8%, taking position 3, and considering the 10 year average of 2007 to 2016 she had a slowing improvement of +0.83. Botswana beat the African average of 48.5 %. Thirteenth, Education. This includes education provision, education quality, educational system management, human resources in primary schools, primary school completion, secondary school enrolment, tertiary education enrolment and literacy in which Botswana scored 70.2%; 83.3%; 55.2%; 88.4%, 84.4%, 69.3%, 38.1% and 91.2% respectively.


Botswana attained positions 5; 2; 12; 6, 10, 10, 7 and 9 in education provision, education quality, educational system management, human resources in primary schools, primary school completion, secondary school enrolment, tertiary education enrolment and literacy respectively. Overall, Botswana scored 72.5%, taking position 3, but considering the 10 year average of 2007 to 2016 she had warning signs of +0.19. Botswana beat the African average of 48.5 % as she did with welfare.


Fourteenth, Health. This includes basic health services, public health campaigns, child mortality, maternal mortality, access to sanitation, undernourishment, disease, immunization and antiretroviral treatment in which Botswana scored 81.4.2%; 75%; 86.4%; 95.4%, 69.7%, 65.6%, 91%, 96% and 100% respectively. Botswana attained positions 3; 14; 11; 7, 13, 30, 19, 8 and 1 in basic health services, public health campaigns, child mortality, maternal mortality, access to sanitation, undernourishment, disease, immunization and antiretroviral treatment respectively.


Overall, Botswana scored 84.6%, taking position 6, but considering the 10 year average of 2007 to 2016 she had warning signs of +0.42. Botswana beat the African average of 71.5 %. Overall, Botswana scored 72.7%, ranking third, but on the 10 year average of 2007 to 2016 she suffered an increasing deterioration of -0.09. Moreover, Botswana, just like Cabo Verde and Mozambique, which have produced Mo Ibrahim Prize laureates, is now showing wavering signs in its governance performance.


It can, therefore, be safely concluded that, based on the 2017 IIAG, while Botswana still shines in good governance, making the top 10 at position 3 with a 72.7%, she is increasing in her deterioration. She has increasing deterioration in 50% of the indicators, and warning signs and slowing deterioration in 25% of the indicators.        

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